Chapter 19 – What Happened to Them at Surinam, and How Candide Became Acquainted with Martin

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Our travelers’ first day’s journey was very pleasant; they were
elated with the prospect of possessing more riches than were to be
found in Europe, Asia, and Africa together. Candide, in amorous
transports, cut the name of Miss Cunegund on almost every tree he came
to. The second day two of their sheep sunk in a morass, and were
swallowed up with their Jading; two more died of fatigue; some few
days afterwards seven or eight perished with hunger in a desert, and
others, at different times, tumbled down precipices, or were otherwise
lost, so that, after traveling about a hundred days they had only
two sheep left of the hundred and two they brought with them from El

Said Candide to Cacambo, “You see, my dear friend, how perishable
the riches of this world are; there is nothing solid but virtue.”

“Very true,” said Cacambo, “but we have still two sheep remaining,
with more treasure than ever the King of Spain will be possessed of;
and I espy a town at a distance, which I take to be Surinam, a town
belonging to the Dutch. We are now at the end of our troubles, and
at the beginning of happiness.”

As they drew near the town they saw a Negro stretched on the
ground with only one half of his habit, which was a kind of linen
frock; for the poor man had lost his left leg and his right hand.

“Good God,” said Candide in Dutch, “what dost thou here, friend,
in this deplorable condition?”

“I am waiting for my master, Mynheer Vanderdendur, the famous
trader,” answered the Negro.

“Was it Mynheer Vanderdendur that used you in this cruel manner?”

“Yes, sir,” said the Negro; “it is the custom here. They give a
linen garment twice a year, and that is all our covering. When we
labor in the sugar works, and the mill happens to snatch hold of a
finger, they instantly chop off our hand; and when we attempt to run
away, they cut off a leg. Both these cases have happened to me, and it
is at this expense that you eat sugar in Europe; and yet when my
mother sold me for ten patacoons on the coast of Guinea, she said to
me, ‘My dear child, bless our fetishes; adore them forever; they
will make thee live happy; thou hast the honor to be a slave to our
lords the whites, by which thou wilt make the fortune of us thy

“Alas! I know not whether I have made their fortunes; but they
have not made mine; dogs, monkeys, and parrots are a thousand times
less wretched than I. The Dutch fetishes who converted me tell me
every Sunday that the blacks and whites are all children of one
father, whom they call Adam. As for me, I do not understand anything
of genealogies; but if what these preachers say is true, we are all
second cousins; and you must allow that it is impossible to be worse
treated by our relations than we are.”

“O Pangloss!” cried out Candide, “such horrid doings never entered
thy imagination. Here is an end of the matter. I find myself, after
all, obliged to renounce thy Optimism.”

“Optimism,” said Cacambo, “what is that?”

“Alas!” replied Candide, “it is the obstinacy of maintaining that
everything is best when it is worst.”

And so saying he turned his eyes towards the poor Negro, and shed
a flood of tears; and in this weeping mood he entered the town of

Immediately upon their arrival our travelers inquired if there was
any vessel in the harbor which they might send to Buenos Ayres. The
person they addressed themselves to happened to be the master of a
Spanish bark, who offered to agree with them on moderate terms, and
appointed them a meeting at a public house. Thither Candide and his
faithful Cacambo went to wait for him, taking with them their two

Candide, who was all frankness and sincerity, made an ingenuous
recital of his adventures to the Spaniard, declaring to him at the
same time his resolution of carrying off Miss Cunegund from the
Governor of Buenos Ayres.

“Oh, ho!” said the shipmaster, “if that is the case, get whom you
please to carry you to Buenos Ayres; for my part, I wash my hands of
the affair. It would prove a hanging matter to us all. The fair
Cunegund is the Governor’s favorite mistress.”

These words were like a clap of thunder to Candide; he wept bitterly
for a long time, and, taking Cacambo aside, he said to him, “I’ll tell
you, my dear friend, what you must do. We have each of us in our
pockets to the value of five or six millions in diamonds; you are
cleverer at these matters than I; you must go to Buenos Ayres and
bring off Miss Cunegund. If the Governor makes any difficulty give him
a million; if he holds out, give him two; as you have not killed an
Inquisitor, they will have no suspicion of you. I’ll fit out another
ship and go to Venice, where I will wait for you. Venice is a free
country, where we shall have nothing to fear from Bulgarians,
Abares, Jews or Inquisitors.”

Cacambo greatly applauded this wise resolution. He was
inconsolable at the thoughts of parting with so good a master, who
treated him more like an intimate friend than a servant; but the
pleasure of being able to do him a service soon got the better of
his sorrow. They embraced each other with a flood of tears. Candide
charged him not to forget the old woman. Cacambo set out the same day.
This Cacambo was a very honest fellow.

Candide continued some days longer at Surinam, waiting for any
captain to carry him and his two remaining sheep to Italy. He hired
domestics, and purchased many things necessary for a long voyage; at
length Mynheer Vanderdendur, skipper of a large Dutch vessel, came and
offered his service.

“What will you have,” said Candide, “to carry me, my servants, my
baggage, and these two sheep you see here, directly to Venice?”

The skipper asked ten thousand piastres, and Candide agreed to his
demand without hestitation.

“Ho, ho!” said the cunning Vanderdendur to himself, “this stranger
must be very rich; he agrees to give me ten thousand piastres
without hesitation.”

Returning a little while after, he told Candide that upon second
consideration he could not undertake the voyage for less than twenty

“Very well; you shall have them,” said Candide.

“Zounds!” said the skipper to himself, “this man agrees to pay
twenty thousand piastres with as much ease as ten.”

Accordingly he went back again, and told him roundly that he would
not carry him to Venice for less than thirty thousand piastres.

“Then you shall have thirty thousand,” said Candide.

“Odso!” said the Dutchman once more to himself, “thirty thousand
piastres seem a trifle to this man. Those sheep must certainly be
laden with an immense treasure. I’ll e’en stop here and ask no more;
but make him pay down the thirty thousand piastres, and then we may
see what is to be done farther.”

Candide sold two small diamonds, the least of which was worth more
than all the skipper asked. He paid him beforehand, the two sheep were
put on board, and Candide followed in a small boat to join the
vessel in the road. The skipper took advantage of his opportunity,
hoisted sail, and put out to sea with a favorable wind. Candide,
confounded and amazed, soon lost sight of the ship.

“Alas!” said he, “this is a trick like those in our old world!”

He returned back to the shore overwhelmed with grief; and, indeed,
he had lost what would have made the fortune of twenty monarchs.

Straightway upon his landing he applied to the Dutch magistrate;
being transported with passion he thundered at the door, which being
opened, he went in, told his case, and talked a little louder than was
necessary. The magistrate began with fining him ten thousand
piastres for his petulance, and then listened very patiently to what
he had to say, promised to examine into the affair on the skipper’s
return, and ordered him to pay ten thousand piastres more for the fees
of the court.

This treatment put Candide out of all patience; it is true, he had
suffered misfortunes a thousand times more grievous, but the cool
insolence of the judge, and the villainy of the skipper raised his
choler and threw him into a deep melancholy. The villainy of mankind
presented itself to his mind in all its deformity, and his soul was
a prey to the most gloomy ideas. After some time, hearing that the
captain of a French ship was ready to set sail for Bordeaux, as he had
no more sheep loaded with diamonds to put on board, he hired the cabin
at the usual price; and made it known in the town that he would pay
the passage and board of any honest man who would give him his company
during the voyage; besides making him a present of ten thousand
piastres, on condition that such person was the most dissatisfied with
his condition, and the most unfortunate in the whole province.

Upon this there appeared such a crowd of candidates that a large
fleet could not have contained them. Candide, willing to choose from
among those who appeared most likely to answer his intention, selected
twenty, who seemed to him the most sociable, and who all pretended
to merit the preference. He invited them to his inn, and promised to
treat them with a supper, on condition that every man should bind
himself by an oath to relate his own history; declaring at the same
time, that he would make choice of that person who should appear to
him the most deserving of compassion, and the most justly dissatisfied
with his condition in life; and that he would make a present to the

This extraordinary assembly continued sitting till four in the
morning. Candide, while he was listening to their adventures, called
to mind what the old woman had said to him in their voyage to Buenos
Ayres, and the wager she had laid that there was not a person on board
the ship but had met with great misfortunes. Every story he heard
put him in mind of Pangloss.

“My old master,” said he, “would be confoundedly put to it to
demonstrate his favorite system. Would he were here! Certainly if
everything is for the best, it is in El Dorado, and not in the other
parts of the world.”

At length he determined in favor of a poor scholar, who had
labored ten years for the booksellers at Amsterdam: being of opinion
that no employment could be more detestable.

This scholar, who was in fact a very honest man, had been robbed
by his wife, beaten by his son, and forsaken by his daughter, who
had run away with a Portuguese. He had been likewise deprived of a
small employment on which he subsisted, and he was persecuted by the
clergy of Surinam, who took him for a Socinian. It must be
acknowledged that the other competitors were, at least, as wretched as
he; but Candide was in hopes that the company of a man of letters
would relieve the tediousness of the voyage. All the other
candidates complained that Candide had done them great injustice,
but he stopped their mouths by a present of a hundred piastres to


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