Chapter 7 – In Camp On The Banks Of The Coanza

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The aspect of the country was entirely changed since the inundation.
It had made a lake of the plain where the termite village stood. The
cones of twenty ant-hills emerged, and formed the only projecting
points on this large basin.

The Coanza had overflowed during the night, with the waters of its
tributaries swelled by the storm.

This Coanza, one of the rivers of Angola, flows into the Atlantic, a
hundred miles from the cape where the "Pilgrim" was wrecked. It was
this river that Lieutenant Cameron had to cross some years later,
before reaching Benguela. The Coanza is intended to become the vehicle
for the interior transit of this portion of the Portuguese colony.
Already steamers ascend its lower course, and before ten years elapse,
they will ply over its upper bed. Dick Sand had then acted wisely in
seeking some navigable river toward the north. The rivulet he had
followed had just been emptied into the Coanza. Only for this sudden
attack, of which he had had no intimation to put him on his guard, he
would have found the Coanza a mile farther on. His companions and he
would have embarked on a raft, easily constructed, and they would have
had a good chance to descend the stream to the Portuguese villages,
where the steamers come into port. There, their safety would be

It would not be so.

The camp, perceived by Dick Sand, was established on an elevation near
the ant-hill, into which fate had thrown him, as in a trap. At the
summit of that elevation rose an enormous sycamore fig-tree, which
would easily shelter five hundred men under its immense branches.
Those who have not seen those giant trees of Central Africa, can form
no idea of them. Their branches form a forest, and one could be lost
in it. Farther on, great banyans, of the kind whose seeds do not
change into fruits, completed the outline of this vast landscape.

It was under the sycamore’s shelter, hidden, as in a mysterious
asylum, that a whole caravan – the one whose arrival Harris had
announced to Negoro – had just halted. This numerous procession of
natives, snatched from their villages by the trader Alvez’s agents,
were going to the Kazounde market. Thence the slaves, as needed, would
be sent either to the barracks of the west coast, or to N’yangwe,
toward the great lake region, to be distributed either in upper Egypt,
or in the factories of Zanzibar.

As soon as they arrived at the camp, Dick Sand and his companions had
been treated as slaves. Old Tom, his son Austin, Acteon, poor Nan,
negroes by birth, though they did not belong to the African race, were
treated like captive natives. After they were disarmed, in spite of
the strongest resistance, they were held by the throat, two by two, by
means of a pole six or seven feet long, forked at each end, and closed
by an iron rod. By this means they were forced to march in line, one
behind the other, unable to get away either to the right or to the
left. As an over precaution, a heavy chain was attached to their
waists. They had their arms free, to carry burdens, their feet free to
march, but they could not use them to flee. Thus they were going to
travel hundreds of miles under an overseer’s lash. Placed apart,
overcome by the reaction which followed the first moments of their
struggle against the negroes, they no longer made a movement. Why had
they not been able to follow Hercules in his flight? And, meanwhile,
what could they hope for the fugitive? Strong as he was, what would
become of him in that inhospitable country, where hunger, solitude,
savage beasts, natives, all were against him? Would he not soon regret
his companion’s fate? They, however, had no pity to expect from the
chiefs of the caravan, Arabs or Portuguese, speaking a language they
could not understand. These chiefs only entered into communication
with their prisoners by menacing looks and gestures.

Dick Sand himself was not coupled with any other slave. He was a white
man, and probably they had not dared to inflict the common treatment
on him. Unarmed, he had his feet and hands free, but a driver watched
him especially. He observed the camp, expecting each moment to see
Negoro or Harris appear. His expectation was in vain. He had no doubt,
however, that those two miserable men had directed the attack against
the ant-hill.

Thus the thought came to him that Mrs. Weldon, little Jack, and Cousin
Benedict had been led away separately by orders from the American or
from the Portuguese. Seeing neither one nor the other, he said to
himself that perhaps the two accomplices even accompanied their
victims. Where were they leading them? What would they do with them?
It was his most cruel care. Dick Sand forgot his own situation to
think only of Mrs. Weldon and hers.

The caravan, camped under the gigantic sycamore, did not count less
than eight hundred persons, say five hundred slaves of both sexes,
two hundred soldiers, porters, marauders, guards, drivers, agents, or

These chiefs were of Arab and Portugese origin. It would be difficult
to imagine the cruelties that these inhuman beings inflicted on their
captives. They struck them without relaxation, and those who fell
exhausted, not fit to be sold, were finished with gunshots or the
knife. Thus they hold them by terror. But the result of this system
is, that on the arrival of the caravan, fifty out of a hundred slaves
are missing from the trader’s list. A few may have escaped, but the
bones of those who died from torture mark out the long routes from the
interior to the coast.

It is supposed that the agents of European origin, Portuguese for the
most part, are only rascals whom their country has rejected, convicts,
escaped prisoners, old slave-drivers whom the authorities have been
unable to hang – in a word, the refuse of humanity. Such was Negoro,
such was Harris, now in the service of one of the greatest contractors
of Central Africa, Jose-Antonio Alvez, well known by the traders of
the province, about whom Lieutenant Cameron has given some curious

The soldiers who escort the captives are generally natives in the pay
of the traders. But the latter have not the monopoly of those raids
which procure the slaves for them. The negro kings also make atrocious
wars with each other, and with the same object. Then the vanquished
adults, the women and children, reduced to slavery, are sold by the
vanquishers for a few yards of calico, some powder, a few firearms,
pink or red pearls, and often even, as Livingstone says, in periods of
famine, for a few grains of maize.

The soldiers who escorted old Alvez’s caravan might give a true idea
of what African armies are.

It was an assemblage of negro bandits, hardly clothed, who brandished
long flint-lock guns, the gun-barrels garnished with a great number of
copper rings. With such an escort, to which are joined marauders who
are no better, the agents often have all they can do. They dispute
orders, they insist on their own halting places and hours, they
threaten to desert, and it is not rare for the agents to be forced to
yield to the exactions of this soldiery.

Though the slaves, men or women, are generally subjected to carry
burdens while the caravan is on the march, yet a certain number of
porters accompany it. They are called more particularly "Pagazis," and
they carry bundles of precious objects, principally ivory. Such is the
size of these elephants’ teeth sometimes, of which some weigh as much
as one hundred and sixty pounds, that it takes two of these "Pagazis"
to carry them to the factories. Thence this precious merchandise is
exported to the markets of Khartoum, of Zanzibar and Natal.

On arriving, these "Pagazis" are paid the price agreed upon. It
consists in twenty yards of cotton cloth, or of that stuff which bears
the name of "Merikani," a little powder, a handful of cowry (shells
very common in that country, which serve as money), a few pearls, or
even those of the slaves who would be difficult to sell. The slaves
are paid, when the trader has no other money.

Among the five hundred slaves that the caravan counted, there were
few grown men. That is because, the "Razzia" being finished and
the village set on fire, every native above forty is unmercifully
massacred and hung to a neighboring tree. Only the young adults of
both sexes and the children are intended to furnish the markets.
After these men-hunts, hardly a tenth of the vanquished survive. This
explains the frightful depopulation which changes vast territories of
equatorial Africa into deserts.

Here, the children and the adults were hardly clothed with a rag of
that bark stuff, produced by certain trees, and called "mbouzon" in
the country. Thus the state of this troop of human beings, women
covered with wounds from the "havildars’" whips, children ghastly
and meager, with bleeding feet, whom their mothers tried to carry in
addition to their burdens, young men closely riveted to the fork, more
torturing than the convict’s chain, is the most lamentable that can be

Yes, the sight of the miserable people, hardly living, whose voices
have no sound, ebony skeletons according to Livingstone’s expression,
would touch the hearts of wild beasts. But so much misery did not
touch those hardened Arabs nor those Portuguese, who, according to
Lieutenant Cameron, are still more cruel. This is what Cameron says:
"To obtain these fifty women, of whom Alvez called himself proprietor,
ten villages had been destroyed, ten villages having each from one
hundred to two hundred souls: a total of fifteen hundred inhabitants.
Some had been able to escape, but the greater part – almost all – had
perished in the flames, had been killed in defending their families,
or had died of hunger in the jungle, unless the beasts of prey had
terminated their sufferings more promptly.

"Those crimes, perpetrated in the center of Africa by men who boast of
the name of Christians, and consider themselves Portuguese, would seem
incredible to the inhabitants of civilized countries. It is impossible
that the government of Lisbon knows the atrocities committed by people
who boast of being her subjects." – Tour of the World.

In Portugal there have been very warm protestations against these
assertions of Cameron’s.

It need not be said that, during the marches, as during the halts, the
prisoners were very carefully guarded. Thus, Dick Sand soon understood
that he must not even attempt to get away. But then, how find Mrs.
Weldon again? That she and her child had been carried away by Negoro
was only too certain. The Portuguese had separated her from her
companions for reasons unknown as yet to the young novice. But he
could not doubt Negoro’s intervention, and his heart was breaking at
the thought of the dangers of all kinds which threatened Mrs. Weldon.

"Ah!" he said to himself, "when I think that I have held those two
miserable men, both of them, at the end of my gun, and that I have not
killed them!"

This thought was one of those which returned most persistently to Dick
Sand’s mind. What misfortunes the death, the just death of Harris and
Negoro might have prevented! What misery, at least, for those whom
these brokers in human flesh were now treating as slaves!

All the horror of Mrs. Weldon’s and little Jack’s situation now
represented itself to Dick Sand. Neither the mother nor the child
could count on Cousin Benedict. The poor man could hardly take care of

Doubtless they were taking all three to some district remote from the
province of Angola. But who was carrying the still sick child?

"His mother; yes, his mother," Dick Sand repeated to himself. "She
will have recovered strength for him; she will have done what these
unhappy female slaves do, and she will fall like them. Ah! may God put
me again in front of her executioners, and I – "

But he was a prisoner! He counted one head in this live-stock that the
overseers were driving to the interior of Africa. He did not even know
whether Negoro and Harris themselves were directing the convoy of
which their victims made a part. Dingo was no longer there to scent
the Portuguese, to announce his approach. Hercules alone might come to
the assistance of the unfortunate Mrs. Weldon. But was that miracle to
be hoped for?

However, Dick Sand fell back again on that idea. He said to himself
that the strong black man was free. Of his devotion there was no
doubt. All that a human being could do, Hercules would do in Mrs.
Weldon’s interest. Yes, either Hercules would try to find them and put
himself in communication with them; or if that failed him, he would
endeavor to concert with him, Dick Sand, and perhaps carry him off,
deliver him by force. During the night halts, mingling with these
prisoners, black like them, could he not deceive the soldier’s
vigilance, reach him, break his bonds, and lead him away into the
forest? And both of them, then free, what would they not do for Mrs.
Weldon’s safety. A water course would enable them to descend to the
coast. Dick Sand would again take up that plan so unfortunately
prevented by the natives’ attack, with new chances of success and a
greater knowledge of the difficulties.

The young novice thus alternated between fear and hope. In fact, he
resisted despair, thanks to his energetic nature, and held himself in
readiness to profit by the least chance that might offer itself to

What he most desired to know was to what market the agents were taking
the convoy of slaves. Was it to one of the factories of Angola, and
would it be an affair of a few halting-places only, or would this
convoy travel for hundreds of miles still, across Central Africa? The
principal market of the contractors is that of N’yangwe, in Manyema,
on that meridian which divides the African continent into two almost
equal parts, there where extends the country of the great lakes, that
Livingstone was then traversing. But it was far from the camp on the
Coanza to that village. Months of travel would not suffice to reach

That was one of Dick Sand’s most serious thoughts; for, once at
N’yangwe, in case even Mrs. Weldon, Hercules, the other blacks and
he should succeed in escaping, how difficult it would be, not to say
impossible, to return to the seacoast, in the midst of the dangers of
such a long route.

But Dick Sand soon had reason to think that the convoy would soon
reach its destination. Though he did not understand the language
employed by the chiefs of the caravan, sometimes Arab, sometimes the
African idiom, he remarked that the name of an important market of
that region was often pronounced. It was the name Kazounde, and he
knew that a very great trade in slaves was carried on there. He was
then naturally led to believe that there the fate of the prisoners
would be decided, whether for the profit of the king of that district
or for the benefit of some rich trader of the country. We know that he
was not mistaken.

Now, Dick Sand, being posted in the facts of modern geography, knew
very exactly what is known of Kazounde. The distance from Saint
Paul de Loanda to this city does not exceed four hundred miles, and
consequently two hundred and fifty miles, at the most, separates
it from the camp established on the Coanza. Dick Sand made his
calculation approximately, taking the distance traveled by the
little troop under Harris’s lead as the base. Now, under ordinary
circumstances, this journey would only require from ten to twelve
days. Doubling that time for the needs of a caravan already exhausted
by a long route, Dick Sand might estimate the length of the journey
from the Coanza to Kazounde at three weeks.

Dick Sand wished very much to impart what he believed he knew to Tom
and his companions. It would be a kind of consolation for them to be
assured that they were not being led to the center of Africa, into
those fatal countries which they could not hope to leave. Now, a few
words uttered in passing would be sufficient to enlighten them. Would
he succeed in saying those words?

Tom and Bat – chance had reunited the father and son – Acteon and
Austin, forked two by two, were at the right extremity of the camp. An
overseer and a dozen soldiers watched them.

Dick Sand, free in his movements, resolved to gradually diminish the
distance that separated him from his companions to fifty steps. He
then commenced to maneuver to that end.

Very likely old Tom divined Dick Sand’s thought. A word, pronounced in
a low voice, warned his companions to be attentive. They did not stir,
but they kept themselves ready to see, as well as to hear.

Soon, with an indifferent air, Dick Sand had gained fifty steps more.
From the place where he then was, he could have called out, in such
a manner as to be heard, that name Kazounde, and tell them what
the probable length of the journey would be. But to complete his
instructions, and confer with them on their conduct during the
journey, would be still better. He then continued to draw nearer to
them. Already his heart was beating with hope; he was only a few
steps from the desired end, when the overseer, as if he had suddenly
penetrated his intention, rushed on him. At the cries of that enraged
person, ten soldiers ran to the spot, and Dick Sand was brutally led
back to the rear, while Tom and his companions were taken to the other
extremity of the camp.

Exasperated, Dick Sand had thrown himself upon the overseer. He had
ended by breaking his gun in his hands. He had almost succeeded in
snatching it from him. But seven or eight soldiers assailed him at
once, and force was used to secure him. Furious, they would have
massacred him, if one of the chiefs of the caravan, an Arab of great
height and ferocious physiognomy, had not intervened. This Arab was
the chief Ibn Hamis, of whom Harris had spoken. He pronounced a few
words which Dick Sand could not understand, and the soldiers, obliged
to release their prey, went away.

It was, then, very evident, for one thing, that there had been a
formal order not to allow the young novice to communicate with his
companions; and for another, that his life should not be taken.

Who could have given such orders, if not Harris or Negoro?

At that moment – it was nine o’clock in the morning, April 19th – the
harsh sounds from a "condou’s" horn (a kind of ruminating animal among
the African deer) burst forth, and the drum was heard. The halt was
going to end.

All, chiefs, porters, soldiers, slaves, were immediately on foot.
Laden with their packs, several groups of captives were formed under
the leadership of an overseer, who unfurled a banner of bright colors.

The signal for departure was given. Songs then rose on the air; but
they were the vanquished, not the vanquishers, who sang thus.

This is what they said in these songs – a threatening expression of a
simple faith from the slaves against their oppressors – against their

"You have sent me to the coast, but I shall be dead; I shall have a
yoke no longer, and I shall return to kill you."


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